Per capita funding and additional payments for teachers: Measures taken to improve quality of school education in Kazakhstan
Pre-School Education: Developing 4C
Recall that in the Address to the people of Kazakhstan, the President noted that the foundations of thinking, mental and creative abilities, and new skills are formed in early childhood.
Emphasis in education is shifting towards the 4C model: the development of creativity, critical thinking, communication skills and collaboration.
As noted in the Ministry of Education and Science, in October 2018, the State obligatory standard of pre-school education and training was approved. The Standard provides for the development of social skills and self-learning skills for children.
In addition, a program was developed and approved for the development of social skills and self-study skills, taking into account the requirements of the Standard, aimed at fulfilling the tasks of socializing children from birth to 3 years of age, developing social skills and self-study skills.
There is an emphasis on the leading role of the teacher in the pre-school organization, of the parent � in the family and the pre-school organization.
The main stages of the psychosocial development of the child’s personality from birth to 3 years of age are given in terms of the socialization of children.
The program provides the formation of social skills in children on the interaction, adaptation, the formation of the child as an individual, humane attitude to the environment (family, society, nature), the basics of safe behavior. The assessment system will make it possible, using criteria (the child reproduces certain actions, understands what he does and applies independently what he can) to assess the levels of social readiness, leadership, tolerance and self-learning of children. As a result of the implementation of the Program, young children will develop social skills and self-study skills necessary for a successful, confident and positive future student.
Secondary Education: Concentration on Reforms
The Address refers to the final stage in the reforms of school education.
In Kazakhstan, as part of the State Program for the Development of Education and Science for 2016-2019, the content is being updated. In the 2017-2018 school year, the program for the grades 1, 2, 5, 7 was updated. From Sep. 1, 2018, students in grades 3, 6, and 8 switched to the updated content.
According to the ministry, today 73% of children are covered by the updated content of education (in 2016 � 12.6%, in 2017 � 43%). The coverage of teachers with courses on updated content for three years was 75%. Nearly 208 thousand teachers receive a surcharge for teaching on updated content.
The updated curricula and textbooks were tested in the 2015-2016 academic year in the 1st grade, in the 2016-2017 academic year � in the 2nd, 5th and 7th grades, in the 2017-2018 � in the 3rd, 6th and 8th grades. From Sep. 1, 2018-2019 school year, testing continues for grades 4, 9 and 10 in 30 pilot schools. After each quarter, intermediate results are summarized. In 30 pilot schools, there are 143 class-kits.
The overall result of the testing will be summarized at the end of the 2018-2019 school year.
At the same time, a new model of per capita normative funding has been developed and is being tested to create a system for stimulating successful schools.
The novelty of this model are:
1. Determining the individual size of the per capita standard for children with special educational needs;
2. Rationing of expenses for corresponding additional payments in order to ensure social guarantees of the state to employees living in zones of ecological disaster and radiation risk;
3. Introduction of a component to improve the quality of education through the stimulation of pedagogical potential;
4. Introduction of a corrective (downward) ratio for overcrowded schools with significant actual contingent in order to use public funds more efficiently and rationally;
5. Regulating capital expenditures to improve the quality of education by strengthening and developing the material and educational base of schools.
In general, the per capita standard is presented in 16 variations depending on the level of education and features of education (correctional classes, homeschooling, inclusive education).
This model is tested in 43 schools in seven regions (Akmola, Aktobe, Almaty, East Kazakhstan, Turkestan regions, Astana and Almaty) and was evaluated by the Ministry of Finance, akimats, pilot schools, Atameken National Chamber of Entrepreneurs as more efficient and fair.
To date, 80 state and 8 private schools in Astana have switched to per capita regulatory funding.
Along with this, the state order is placed on the principle of per capita financing in private schools of six regions (cities of Astana and Shymkent, Aktobe, Almaty, Mangistau and Turkestan regions) for 6 thousand people.
The ministry explains that to create the possibility of functioning of a number of schools with per capita funding in the form of a state enterprise on the right of economic management, changes were made to the legislation. This will contribute to the effective implementation of per capita regulatory financing of secondary education, creating conditions for the rational and effective use of budgetary funds.
Intermediate results of approbation of per capita funding in pilot schools showed an improvement in the indicators of annual monitoring of student performance: from 54 points in 2013 to 61.9 points for the 2017-2018 academic year. The average UNT increased from 71 to 77.1 points. The share of students-winners, winners, laureates of competitions and competitions in the 2017-2018 academic year was 21.5% of the total number of students (in the 2012-2013 academic year � 18%).
Within the scope of per capita funding, schools have the opportunity to partially strengthen the educational and material and technical base. Acquired: sports equipment, student furniture, training boards, visual aids and teaching materials, musical instruments.
Trilingual Education � Key to Competitiveness
The basic content of the renewed education is implemented within the framework of the trilingual education policy. A systematic transition to learning in Kazakh, Russian and English is carried out as part of the 79th Step of the Nation’s Plan 100 Concrete Steps and the State Program for the Development of Education and Science for 2016-2019. It was developed and approved an action plan for the promotion of trilingual education.
In accordance with the Roadmap for the Development of Trilingual Education for 2015�2020, the natural science teaching (computer science, physics, chemistry and biology) in three languages will be implemented in stages, starting from 2019 at the request of students and with the readiness of schools.
For training in three languages, four natural-mathematical subjects are defined, which will be taught in English in high school � physics, chemistry, biology, and computer science.
For a gradual transition to a trilingual education, the ministry is training current subject teachers to teach them English and how to teach the subject in English.
Today, multilingual education is successfully implemented in specialized schools of the Daryn network, Nazarbayev Intellectual School, in educational innovation lyceums and others.
In 2018, the number of pilot schools that switched to teaching (fully and partially) of natural science subjects in English increased by 2.8 thousand. (in 2018 � 3,372, 2017 � 532). About 7.8 thousand teachers teach these academic subjects in English and 5.5 thousand teachers receive a surcharge of 200% of the basic salary.
For three years, about 10 thousand teachers reached the level of proficiency in language B1 and higher for teaching natural science subjects in English.
Advanced training courses on teaching in English were organized for 4,675 subject teachers starting in the new academic year.
A single language standard for teaching three languages and a methodological guide for its use have also been developed and are available on the website of the Altynsarin National Academy of Education.
Vocational Education in Accordance with International Standards
Similar work is being done in the areas of technical and vocational, higher and postgraduate education. So, in technical education, first of all, there will be a transition to the English language of instruction for college students enrolled on the basis of 9 (10-11) grades. Full or partial teaching of special subjects in English is conducted in 73 colleges. The educational process in English involved 287 engineering and teaching staff and more than 5,000 students.
There are 74 educational programs in three languages (state, Russian, and English) that meet the international requirements of WorldSkills and take into account the needs of Kazakhstani employers. Since 2016, 1,397 engineering and pedagogical workers in technical education have completed courses on teaching special subjects in English according to the methods of CLIL, TBLT, BOPPPS.
State compulsory education standards of higher and postgraduate education provide standards for the implementation of trilingual education: 30% of academic disciplines are taught in English.
There are 554 educational programs in English (362 undergraduate, 143 master’s programs, 49 doctoral).
The number of students in universities in three languages increased by 6,226 people. (in 2018 � 40,105, 2017 � 33,879), the number of graduates � by 2,731 people. (in 2018 � 8,071, 2017 � 5,340).
For the 2018-2019 academic year, 450 places were allocated to departments in higher educational institutions to improve the level of language training (training takes place at universities in teaching specialties).
In 76 universities 2,572 special groups have been established, in which 30,967 people are trained in three languages in all areas. Including, in a bachelor degree � 26,047 people, in a magistracy � 4,665 people, in a doctoral program � 255 people. Of these, 5,921 people are enrolled in pedagogical specialties: 5,427 people in bachelor’s degree, 480 in master’s programs, 14 in doctoral studies.
In 2018, refresher courses for enhanced language training of faculty members were held in pedagogical specialties in English for 305 people, in the specialties “5B011000 � Physics” � 66 people, “5B011200 � Chemistry” � 71 people, “5B011300 � Biology � 87 people. There are 6,461 faculty members who work in English (4,877 in 2017). Most of them teach in such areas as “Education” � 1,482 people (23%) and “Technical Science and Technology” � 1,575 people (24%).
Together with 51 foreign universities, 310 two-degree educational programs are being implemented (undergraduate programs � 98, graduate programs � 202, doctoral studies � 10). In 2018, 318 foreign scientists were invited as lecturers who also participate in the development of educational programs and teaching aids in English.
Source: The Prime Minister of Kazakhstan