“One belt, one way” a new model of regional cooperation
Forum “Belt and Road” for the first time was held in 2017 in honor of the 5th anniversary of this initiative. The forum was attended by heads of 29 states, prime ministers, heads of international organizations, 6 largescale conferences and 2 extended meetings. The Forum “Belt and Way” was organized by about 40 states and governments, “Green Silk Road”, “Innovative Silk Road”, “Digital Silk Road”, 12 sessions, 150 countries and about 5 thousand participants from 90 international organizations. In the context of trade disputes between economic sanctions and major powers, the Forum will be an important platform for regional cooperation. That is to say that this year Forum has become much more quantitative and quantitative.
The First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev was not only an official delegate but also as a respected guest. On March 20, 2019, Chinese Ambassador to Kazakhstan Zhang Xiao gave the invitation directly to the President. At the opening ceremony, the President gave an exclusive interview to Chinese mass media.
The culmination of the trip is the transfer of the highest order of the Chinese “Dostyk” foreign policy to the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. This is Kazakhstan’s award for the contribution of the SCO, the CICA initiator, a significant contribution to the regulation of regional and global problems, stability and security . In short, we believe that it was a hot “friendly” meeting, not a tradeeconomic, investment and infrastructure agreement, but a breakthrough in KazakhChinese relations.
“Dialogue” in the face of global challenges, trade facilitation and sanctions is a timeframe. First of all:
the global level, strengthening the dialogue between the US, Russia, China and the European Union;
The second dialogue the integration of the CICA and the OSCE;
The third dialogue is a systematic economic dialogue between the EEU, EU, SCO and ASEAN.
By establishing this cooperation dialogue, the global role of the Greater Eurasia will be enhanced. This initiative is not for the first time in Kazakhstan. Speaking in honor of the 5th anniversary of the initiative, Nursultan Nazarbayev talked about the preparation of a joint strategic alignment of the Silk Road and the creation of the Common Eurasian Economic Space. For the effective development of transit potential, administrative barriers, scientific research and technology transfer are steadily rising.
What is the reputation of the Belt and the Road?
The head of state described this as a “new model of regional cooperation”.
Of course, this initiative is also a foreign political ambition of China in this era. After all, the initiative of the party’s charter and Xi Jinping’s ideas were included in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. Deng Xiaoping concealed his opportunity, and then criticized the international community for its “Peaceful Rise”, “Harmonious Society.” China is now openly declaring its foreign policy and taking on the international level of responsibility. The Belt and Way is a concept that has been embodied in the weight of domestic and foreign policy. Despite the criticism from the international expert community, we are convinced that there are few people who support this initiative.
In particular, 126 states and 29 international organizations have already supported joint initiatives. As a result, 174 documents were signed at the interstate level. China’s direct investment in these countries amounted to $ 80 billion. At the end of the II Forum “Belt and Road” 64 billion tenge was spent. It is wellknown that 283 contracts were signed .
The countries of the “Belt and the road” for 20132018 total trade turnover reached $ 6 trillion (https://rus.yidaiyilu.gov.cn/ydylzt.htm)
As you know, the Belt and Road Initiative consists of “Silk Road Economic Belt” and “Silk Road in the 21st Century Tengiz.” Railway components on the continental ChinaEurope route in 2018 have made 6363 flights, which is 73% higher than the previous year. Railway trains from China go to 50 cities in 15 European countries. And over 600 seaports from 200 countries around the world are interconnected. Among them are Gwadar in Pakistan, Gambitanota ports in Sri Lanka, which are of particular interest to China.
The first of the initiatives in the “One Belt, One Way”: the idea, practice and China’s share of the initiative “reflects the basic principles of its implementation . It explores the cooperation of the States along the Silk Road in the following areas:
1. Political coordination. First of all, it is not difficult for China to emphasize the importance of establishing mutual understanding on the Silk Road through intergovernmental agreements, at the political level, and continuing support.
2. Infrastructure communication. This is the main focus of the initiative. Economic corridors, in particular, ports, railway and motor roads, communications and aviation, and joint venture of electric power industry. Funds are also allocated to these sectors. The list of economic corridors is as follows:
ChinaMongoliaRussia economic corridor;
ChinaCentral AsiaWestern Asia economic corridor (connects China, Central Asia, Pakistan, Turkey);
ChineseIndian economic corridor;
ChinaPakistan economic corridor;
BangladeshChinaIndianMyanmar economic corridor.
3. Trade barriers. The main purpose of the infrastructure, installation of railroads is to provide goods to other markets. The Silk Road countries are constantly paying attention to the smooth movement of railroad tracks and administrative barriers. On the one hand, the volume of mutual household goods, electronics, agricultural products, and even sales of cars increases.
4. Financial Integration. Strengthening the links between financial institutions and institutions. Kazakhstan intends to attract investments through creation of the international financial center “Astana”. China Development Bank, Exim Bank and China Construction Bank and Silk Road Foundation are increasing their activity in Central Asia and Kazakhstan.
5. People to people, that is human relations. It is a cultural exchange, education program, tourism and medicine among the nations. In particular, about 15 thousand Kazakhstani students study in China and the number of Chinese students increases. For Kazakhstani citizens, Hong Kong’s 15day, Hainan30day visafree regime, Chinese tourists are provided with 72hour transit visas.
6. Cooperation in the industrial sphere. 55 industrial projects have been completed between Kazakhstan and China. As President said, 11 of them will be launched and 15 will be completed by year’s end. The ecological safety of these projects and the issue of employment are discussed in the law on both sides.
What is the benefit to Kazakhstan?
The Belt and Road Initiative in Kazakhstan will be particularly effective in diversifying the economy, developing regional infrastructure and strengthening competitiveness. Kazakhstan links the “Nurly Zhol” program with this initiative and focuses on transport and logistics development. To date, the “Railway diplomacy” has its own achievements. In 2018, the container cargo weighed from the railway ports of the two countries reached 13.9 million tonnes and increased by 38% a year. ChinaKazakhstan trade volume last year was $ 20 billion. Approximately US $. In JanuaryFebruary 2019, the table shows that trade turnover with China, including Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macao, is growing steadily. Over the past decade, Kazakhstan has been integrating its national programs into “Belt and Road” infrastructure, invested $ 30 billion in transport and logistics development. About 3 thousand kilometers of railways and 12.5 thousand kilometers of automobile roads were put into operation
According to the expert of the Institute of World Economy and Policy Zh.Arynov, this project for Kazakhstan has given a number of positive results and stimulated the transit and production potential of our country. However, the potential of this transit route is still incomplete
According to George Washington University professor S.YuswftiA “zone and the initiative of the road” China’s participation in political and economic life of the countries in the Eurasian region, financial institutions, are actively investing in the quyuin penetration of certain liabilities increase statement . Political and economic changes took place in the region and in the world after the first forum “One Belt, One Way”. Turbulence in international relations, uncertainty and uncertainty affect the countries of the world, apart from direct actors. Silk Road countries view the initiative as an alternative to trade and economic development.
However, public opinion polls about worldrenown thinktank centers, research institutes and a number of government leaders on the “Belt and the Road” are published in the media. Kazakhstan and Central Asian countries are trying to consider the economically effective implementation of this project in regional cooperation rather than political. The main incentive China has seen a number of problems in the current stage of implementation of the “Belt and Road”. If it is not resolved in time, it is likely that the proposed Silk Road programs will be in the process of the past
Source: Kazakhstan 2050